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Accession Number PB2013-100732
Title Energy Security and Conflict: A Country-Level Review of the Issues.
Publication Date Aug 2010
Media Count 56p
Personal Author C. Mataya J. Stark K. Lubovich
Abstract This paper seeks to fill a gap in the literature on energy security and conflict. Rather than looking at the potential for conflict as it relates to strategic issues, inter-state competition, or instability associated with resource abundance, the central focus of this paper is on the potential for conflict arising from the threats to the energy security of national populations and local communities. Its underlying premise is that the energy security-conflict relationship is highly context dependent. Individuals and social groups engage in conflict over energy issues when they perceive that their way of life is imperiled, or they have been dealt with unjustly, or as part of a larger constellation of grievances about the political and socioeconomic conditions within which they live. Organized around three major sources of energy (oil and gas, traditional biomass, and hydropower), the analysis examines problems of actual or potential conflict related to energy provision, access, distribution, and reliability through illustrations from eight countries with very different national contexts and levels of development: Iraq, Dominican Republic, Ukraine, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Somalia, Sudan, and Cambodia. Between 2005 and 2030, global demand for energy is predicted to increase by approximately 50 percent, with most of the demand coming from non-OECD countries and fossil fuels remaining the dominant source. At the same time, the relative distribution of energy resources is shifting. Regions such as West Africa, Central Asia, and parts of Latin America have acquired greater global significance as energy providers. However, in many developing countries, oil, natural gas, and coal provide a much smaller percentage of energy needs than traditional biomass, such as fuelwood, charcoal, dung, and crop residues. Some 2.5 billion people use traditional biomass for their cooking and heating needs. Many low-income countries are likely to rely predominantly on traditional biomass for several decades to come. While the social and environmental concerns raised by the Report of the World Commission on Dams in 2000 reduced funding for large hydropower projects by the World Bank and other donors, the need for power in poor countries with untapped water resources is driving a new series of major hydropower projects. In a number of cases where traditional donor agencies have been hesitant to proceed, China is both providing financing and undertaking the construction of these projects.
Keywords Abundance
Developing countries
Fossil fuels
Local areas
National security
Natural gas
Natural resources
Political systems
Socioeconomic conditions

Source Agency Agency for International Development
NTIS Subject Category 97G - Policies, Regulations & Studies
97K - Fuels
96C - International Commerce, Marketing, & Economics
92E - International Relations
Corporate Author Agency for International Development, Washington, DC.
Document Type Technical report
Title Note N/A
NTIS Issue Number 1307
Contract Number N/A

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