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Accession Number N20130011053
Title Psychophysiology of Spaceflight and Aviation.
Publication Date Feb 2013
Media Count 42p
Personal Author P. Cowings W. Toscano
Abstract In space, the absence of gravity alone causes unique physiological stress. Significant biomedical changes, across multiple organ systems, such as body fluid redistribution, diminished musculoskeletal strength, changes in cardiac function and sensorimotor control have been reported. The time course of development of these disorders and severity of symptoms experienced by individuals varies widely. Space motion sickness (SMS) is an example of maladaptation to microgravity, which occurs early in the mission and can have profound effects on physical health and crew performance. Disturbances in sleep quality, perception, emotional equilibrium and mood have also been reported, with impact to health and performance varying widely across individuals. And lastly, post-flight orthostatic intolerance, low blood pressure experienced after returning to Earth, is also of serious concern. Both the Russian and American space programs have a varied list of human errors and mistakes, which adversely impacted mission goals. Continued probability of human exposure to microgravity for extended time periods provides a rationale for the study of the effects of stress. The primary focus of this research group is directed toward examining individual differences in: (a) prediction of susceptibility to these disorders, (b) assessment of symptom severity, (c) evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures, and (d) developing and testing a physiological training method, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) as a countermeasure with multiple applications. The present paper reports on the results of a series of human flight experiments with AFTE aboard the Space Shuttle and Mir Space Station, and during emergency flight scenarios on Earth.
Keywords Aerospace medicine
Countermeasures
Feedback
Human performance
Manned space flight
Microgravity
Motion sickness
Physiological effects
Physiology
Psychophysiology


 
Source Agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NTIS Subject Category 84 - Space Technology
57E - Clinical Medicine
Corporate Author National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA. Ames Research Center.
Document Type Technical report
Title Note N/A
NTIS Issue Number 1320
Contract Number N/A

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