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Accession Number DE2012-1044206
Title Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination.
Publication Date Feb 2012
Media Count 14p
Personal Author E. Snyder J. Drake R. James
Abstract A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests.
Keywords Building materials
Cesium
Decontamination
Fallout
Idaho National Laboratory
Reactors
Simulation
Stainless steels
Zirconium


 
Source Agency Technical Information Center Oak Ridge Tennessee
NTIS Subject Category 77G - Radioactive Wastes & Radioactivity
77 - Nuclear Science & Technology
Corporate Author Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID.
Document Type Technical report
Title Note N/A
NTIS Issue Number 1303
Contract Number DE-AC07-05ID14517

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