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Accession Number DE2012-1042587
Title Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms: Reference Formulation Report.
Publication Date Sep 2012
Media Count 22p
Personal Author J. Marra K. Brinkman K. Fox
Abstract The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets with CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with Mo and Zr removed. Waste streams that contain Mo must be produced in reducing environments to avoid Cs-Mo oxide phase formation. Waste streams without Mo have the ability to be melt processed in air. A path forward for further optimizing the processing steps needed to form the targeted phase assemblages is outlined in this report. Processing modifications including melting in a reducing atmosphere, and controlled heat treatment schedules are anticipated to improve the targeted elemental partitioning.
Keywords Actinides
Ceramics
Crystallization
Fission products
Fuel cycle
Heat treatment
Melting
Molybdenum
Optimization
Oxides
Radioactive wastes
Radioisotopes
Rare earths
Targets
Thermodynamics
Titanates
Transmission elements
Waste forms


 
Source Agency Technical Information Center Oak Ridge Tennessee
NTIS Subject Category 77G - Radioactive Wastes & Radioactivity
Corporate Author Department of Energy, Aiken, SC. Savannah River Site.
Document Type Technical report
Title Note N/A
NTIS Issue Number 1226
Contract Number DE-AC09-08SR22470

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