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Accession Number ADA592754
Title NATO's Options for Defensive Cyber Against Non-State Actors.
Publication Date Apr 2013
Media Count 36p
Personal Author I. C. Carey
Abstract Overt state-to-state cyber conflicts are unlikely for the foreseeable future; states prefer to retain plausible deniability through surreptitious sponsorship of non-state cyber militias. International legal norms, NATO's Article 5 requirements, and UN Security Council procedural issues seem to limit NATO's options in responding to cyber events by non-state actors. However, there are three circumstances under which NATO may legally take cyber countermeasures against non-state actors: (1) when a nation-state fails to enforce the law against non-state actors within its borders; (2) when a cyber- disruption is tantamount to an economic blockade; and (3) if there is intelligence that indicates a pending cyber-attack by force, thereby necessitating anticipatory self-defense. The decision by NATO after 9/11 to pursue a non-state terrorist organization was a normative shift internationally; prior to this event, counterterrorism was widely viewed as a law enforcement issue. With China and Russia as permanent members of the UN Security Council, resolutions against countries for harboring cyber militias are unlikely. Both nations routinely tolerate-if not sponsor-cyber militias. NATO is the one enforcement arm with the resources to thwart the illicit militias.
Keywords Anticipatory self-defense
Article 5
Cyber security
Ddos(Distributed denial of service)
Economic blockades
Law enforcement
Nonstate actors
Rule of law
Tallinn manual
United states government

Source Agency Non Paid ADAS
NTIS Subject Category 92 - Behavior & Society
62D - Information Processing Standards
74 - Military Sciences
Corporate Author Syracuse Univ., NY.
Document Type Technical report
Title Note Civilian research project.
NTIS Issue Number 1412
Contract Number N/A

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