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Accession Number ADA590328
Title No-Fly Zones: Strategic, Operational, and Legal Considerations for Congress. Updated May 3, 2013.
Publication Date May 2013
Media Count 17p
Personal Author C. Dale C. M. Blanchard J. Gertler J. K. Elsea
Abstract In conflicts in Kosovo, Iraq, and Libya, the United States has taken part in establishing and maintaining no-fly zones. As no-fly zones represent a significant commitment of U.S. forces, and may prove a precursor to other military actions, Congress may wish to consider issues surrounding the strategy, international authorization, congressional authorization, operations, and costs of establishing and maintaining no-fly zones. The military strategy designed to support U.S. grand strategy, it has been suggested, might be based on these considerations: the operational-level military objectives that need to be achieved, to support the overall grand strategy; and the extent to which a no-fly zone as one set of ways and means helps achieve those objectives. Practitioners and observers have debated what constitutes international authorization for the establishment of a no-fly zone. Given the paucity of relevant precedents, and the dissimilarities among them, there may not exist a single, clear, agreed model. The concept of authorization is typically considered to be linked to the ideas of both legality and legitimacy the three concepts overlap but are all distinct. The precise meaning of each of the terms is still debated. Express authorization from the U.N. Security Council provides the clearest legal basis for imposing a no-fly zone. In addition to international authorization, debates have addressed the question of congressional authorization whether and when there is a need for congressional approval based on the War Powers Resolution for a proposed no-fly zone. The question of whether and how congressional authorization is sought for a proposed operation could have an impact on congressional support including policy, funding, and outreach to the American people for the operation.
Keywords Authorization
Civilian population
International law
Law enforcement
Military aircraft
Military operations
Military strategy
No-fly zones
United states

Source Agency Non Paid ADAS
NTIS Subject Category 51B - Aeronautics
92C - Social Concerns
Corporate Author Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC.
Document Type Technical report
Title Note Congressional rept.
NTIS Issue Number 1409
Contract Number N/A

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