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Accession Number ADA581933
Title Molecular Strategies Against Sulfur Mustard Toxicity.
Publication Date Apr 2010
Media Count 10p
Personal Author A. Korkmaz B. Uysal H. Yaren T. Topal Z. I. Kunak
Abstract Among the available chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, has been a widely used chemical weapon. Because of its devastating toxicity, its use during the World War I earned it the sobriquet king of the battle gasses . The toxicity of SM as an incapacitating agent is of much greater importance than its ability to cause lethality. In our laboratory, we have shown that, acute toxicity of SM is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, DNA damage, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation and energy depletion within the affected cell. Therefore, a variety of antioxidant molecules including N-acetyl cysteine, alpha-tocopherol, and melatonin may exert beneficial effects against acute mustard-induced toxicity. Because excess nitric oxide and peroxynitrite also involve in the pathogenesis of SM-induced toxicity inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (e.g., aminoguanidine), and peroxynitrite scavengers (e.g., ebselen) may also alleviate the chemical damage. In spite of the knowledge about acute SM-induced cellular toxicity, unfortunately, it is not clear how mustard gas causes severe multi-organ damage years after even a single exposure. Because of difficulties to create delayed toxicity of SM experimentally, we have almost no idea about the efficacy of molecules used against acute SM-induced toxicity. Nevertheless, 100,000 Iranian casualties are still suffering from the detrimental effects of SM in spite of the extensive treatment. A variety of treatment modalities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs and others have resulted no promising results. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of mustard poisoning.
Keywords Acetylation
Chemical warfare agents
Delayed toxicity
Deoxyribonucleic acids
Dna methylation
Dna(Deoxyribonucleic acids)
Epigenetic
Foreign reports
Gene expression
Histone acetylation
Histones
Mechlorethamines
Methylation
Mustard agents
Mustard gases
Nato furnished
Sm(Sulfur mustard)
Toxicity


 
Source Agency Non Paid ADAS
NTIS Subject Category 57F - Cytology, Genetics, & Molecular Biology
57E - Clinical Medicine
74D - Chemical, Biological, & Radiological Warfare
Corporate Author NATO Research and Technology Organization, Neuilly-sur-Seine (France).
Document Type Technical report
Title Note N/A
NTIS Issue Number 1326
Contract Number N/A

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