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Accession Number ADA564069
Title Maritime Sanctions Enforcement, More Than Just Boardings.
Publication Date May 2012
Media Count 26p
Personal Author D. C. Rivera
Abstract Economic sanctions are a frequent course of action chosen by state leaders to influence or punish the actions of other states. While economic sanctions are commonly viewed as a non-violent method of compelling or deterring behavior, their enforcement frequently requires military operations. This paper will examine those operations from the perspective of a joint force commander assigned the task of planning and executing an operation to enforce economic sanctions in the maritime domain. The paper will first consider current Joint and Service doctrine. Next, it will distill the nature of maritime sanctions enforcement operations by analyzing previous operations: the Beira Patrol against Rhodesia from 1966 to 1976, and the enforcement of United Nations sanctions on Iraq from 1990 to 2003. The Beira Patrol was an operation conducted by the British Royal Navy. The operation was conducted in response to the then British colony of Rhodesia's (modern day Zimbabwe) declaration of independence in November 1965. Rhodesia's declaration was an attempt by its ruling minority white population to maintain control of the country, counter to the British policy of establishing majority rule as part of the process to decolonize its African territories. The United Nations reacted to the Rhodesian declaration by enacting voluntary sanctions which encouraged all members nations to sever economic relations with Rhodesia. The British operational objective was to prevent the shipment of oil to Rhodesia through the Mozambique port of Beira. Economic sanctions against Iraq were enacted by the United Nations in 1990 in response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and ran through 2003. Multinational coalition operations were conducted in both the Red Sea and approaches into Jordan as well as the Persian Gulf and approaches to it. The paper concludes by providing recommendations to planners contemplating the design of a maritime sanctions enforcement operation.
Keywords British royal navy
Case studies
Center of gravity analysis
Crude oil
Economic sanctions
Economic sanctions enforcement
Joint doctrine
Joint force commanders
Joint military activities
Law enforcement
Maritime domain
Maritime interception operations
Military forces(Foreign)
Military planning
Naval blockades
Oil embargo
Operational art
United nations

Source Agency Non Paid ADAS
NTIS Subject Category 96C - International Commerce, Marketing, & Economics
85G - Marine & Waterway Transportation
74G - Military Operations, Strategy, & Tactics
91C - Fire Services, Law Enforcement, & Criminal Justice
97G - Policies, Regulations & Studies
Corporate Author Naval War Coll., Newport, RI. Joint Military Operations Dept.
Document Type Technical report
Title Note Research paper.
NTIS Issue Number 1302
Contract Number N/A

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